|Scientific names||Common names|
|Leea acuminata Wallich ex Clarke||Abang-abang (Tag.)|
|Leea arborea Sieber ex Bojer||Alumamani (Ilk.)|
|Leea arborea Telf. ex Wight & Arn.||Amamali (Pang., P. Bis.)|
|Leea aurantiaca Zoll. & Moritzi||Ayaman kilat (Sbl.)|
|Leea bipinnata Bolvin||Garadat (Bik.)|
|Leea bulusanensis Elmer||Himamalak (P. Bis.)|
|Leea coccinea Planch.||Imamangal (Tagb.)|
|Leea cumingii C.B.Clarke||Kalakal (Ig.)|
|Leea cuspidifera Baker||Kaliantan (Tag.)|
|Leea dentata W.G.Craib||Kulatai (Tagb.)|
|Leea euphlebia Merr.||Mali-mali (Tag., Pamp.)|
|Leea guineensis G. Don||Taliantan (Tag.)|
|Leea laeta Wall. ex Kurz||Tumbosut (P. Bis.)|
|Leea luzonensis Elmer||Ulumamani (Pang.)|
|Leea maculata Desf.||Vodadin (Iv.)|
|Leea manillensis Walp.||Hawaiian holly (Engl.)|
|Leea negrosense Elmer||Red leea (Engl.)|
|Leea palawanensis Elmer||Red tree vine (Engl.)|
|Leea parva Elmer||West indian holly (Engl.)|
|Leea parvifolia Merr.|
|Leea punctata Desf. ex Planch.|
|Leea sanguinea Wall. ex Kurz|
|Leea schomburgkii W.G.Craib|
|Leea speciosus Siebold ex Miq.|
|Leea wightii C.B.Clarke|
|Quisumbing’s compilation lists three species under the Genus Leea: Leea aculeata (mali-mali), Leea indica (mali), and Leea manillensis (abang-abang).|
|In Quisumbing’s compilation, mali-mali is a common name shared by Leea manillensis and Leea aculeata.|
|Leea manillensis Walp. is a synonym of Leea guineense G.Don The Plant List|
|Leea guineensis G. Don is an accepted name The Plant List|
|Other vernacular names|
|CHINESE: Huo tong shu.|
|NIGERIA: Hansid hapan, Kojiya, Arigbokuta, Iya-kerere.|
|PORTUGUESE: Leia alaranjada.|
|THAILAND: Kradangngaa daeng, Khueang khaeng maa, Seesa lueat.|
|VIETNAM: G[oos]i h[aj]c tr[aws]ng, C[or] h[aj]c.|
Red tree vine is a smooth or nearly smooth shrub or small tree, 3 to 5 meters in height. Leaves are three or four times pinnately compound, 50 to 80 centimeters long. Leaflets are elliptic-ovate to oblong lanceolate, 6 to 15 centimeters long, toothed at the margins, pointed at the tip and rounded or somewhat pointed at the base. Flowers are borne on large cymes, up to 50 centimeters in diameter, five-parted and about 3 millimeters long, a few opening at a time, the stalks and calyx are red, the petals, pale yellow. Fruit is dark red, depressed-globose and about 8 millimeters in diameter.
– Common in thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes.
– Also reported in Philippines, Taiwan, the Caroline Islands, and Yap.
– Leaves of Leea guineense (Leeaceae) yielded three hydrophilic flavonoids, viz., quercetin-3′-sulphate-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3,3′-disulphate, and a new flavonoid sulphate, together with kaempferol, quercetin, quercitrin, mearnsitrin, gallic acid and ethyl gallate.
– Leaves have yielded quercetin, kaempferol, mearnsitrin, gallic acid and ethyl gallate.
– Proximate analysis of seeds showed crude protein of 22.30 ±0.45%, crude fiber of 14.38 ±1.20% and ash of 6.96 ±0.16%. Study also showed it to be a good source of dietary minerals especially potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese and copper.
– Proximate analysis of leaves yielded (% of dry samples) 7.43% ash content, 5.69% moisture content, 19.3% crude protein, 7.28% fat, 9.61% crude fiber, 50.7% carbohydrate.
– Mineral analysis of leaves (mg/100g) yielded 31.51 mg sodium, 31.21 mg potassium, 36.29 mg calcium, 28..68 mg magnesium, 30.18 mg zinc, 5.08 mg iron, 1.22 mg manganese, 35.53 mg phosphorus.
– Phytochemical analysis of leaves yielded alkaloid, tannins, saponins, steroid, phlobatannin/terpenoid, flavonoid cardiac glycoside, together with antinutrients phytin phosphorus, oxalate, phytic acid and polyphenol.
Medicinal Properties of Red vine tree
– Considered vulnerary, antidiarrheal, antihypertensive.
– Studies have shown antioxidant, antitumor, antihypertensive, anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic properties.
Roots, branches, leaves.
Folkloric traditional medicinal properties benefits and uses of Red vine tree
– Decoction of roots, branches and leaves used for wound healing.
– In Thailand, root used for diarrhea and hallucination.
– In southern Western Ghats, leaf juice of the plant is mixed with coconut milk, given three times daily for treatment of dysentery with blood discharge.
– Leea guineense popularly used for treating hypertension.
– In West Africa and Guinea-Bissau, plant used for epilepsy.
– Used for treatment of enlarged spleen in children, pregnancy detection, toothache, gonorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery. Also used as diuretic. (see study )
Scientific studies on the benefits and uses of Red vine tree
In a study of the potential antihypertensive activity of Brazilian plants, Leea rubra was one of five plants (C brasiliense, C fruticosum, P roebelinii and T catappa) that showed significant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition.
• Antioxidant Flavonoids / Phenolic Acids / Leaves:
Leaves of Leea guineense (Leeaceae) yielded three hydrophilic flavonoids, viz., quercetin-3′-sulphate-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3,3′-disulphate, and a new flavonoid sulphate, quercetin-3,3′,4′-trisulphate, together with kaempferol, quercetin, quercitrin, mearnsitrin, gallic acid and ethyl gallate. The free radical scavenging effect was evaluated in the DPPH assay.
• Anticonvulsant / Neurobehavioral Effects:
Study of an aqueous extract of leaves of Leea guineensis showed anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, antinociceptive effects through central mechanisms. The extract also caused concentration-dependent contractions on isolated toad rectus abdominis muscle similar to ACh and did not impair motor coordination and balance.
• Antitumor / Antioxidant:
Study evaluated the subacute toxicity, in vivo antioxidant and antitumor activity of an aqueous methanol extract of Leea guineensis on rats bearing carcinomatous cells. Results showed the extract is non toxic and exhibits significant antioxidant and antitumor effects.
• Anti-Edematogenic / Anti-Inflammatory:
Using the carrageenan-induced paw edema method, study of an aqueous extract showed dose-depended anti-edematogenic activity. Results support its use in the treatment of inflammatory conditions.
• Anti-Nociceptive / Anxiolytic / Anticonvulsant:
Study of aqueous extract of L. guineensis showed anti-nociceptive, anti-anxiety, and anticonvulsant effects in murine models of pain (formalin test), anxiety (elevated plus-mazes and light/dark box tests) and convulsion (pentylenetetrazole- picrotoxin- and MES-induced seizure tests).
• Proximate Analysis / Seeds:
Proximate analysis of seeds showed crude protein of 22.30 ±0.45%, crude fiber of 14.38 ±1.20% and ash of 6.96 ±0.16%. Study also showed it to be a good source of dietary minerals especially potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese and copper. Fatty acid profile showed essential amino acids threonine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and histidine.
• Antioxidant / Anti-Tyrosinase / Leaves:
In a study of 21 species of plants, fresh leaves of Leea guinensis showed most effective antioxidant activity (IC50=0.281 g/L) while dried leaves showed the best anti-tyrosinase activity (IC50=0.374 g/L).
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